More
More
文章目录
  1. containsKey() –> getEntry() –> getEntryUsingComparator()
  2. put() –> compare() –> fixAfterInsertion()
  3. deleteEntry() –> successor() –> fixAfterDeletion()
  4. 说点什么:
  5. 知识点:

【java源码一带一路系列】之TreeMap

TreeMap基于红黑树实现,在之前HashMap篇章中有所涉及,所以本篇重点不在此。上路~

containsKey() –> getEntry() –> getEntryUsingComparator()

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
/**
* Returns {@code true} if this map contains a mapping for the specified
* key.
*
* @param key key whose presence in this map is to be tested
* @return {@code true} if this map contains a mapping for the
* specified key
* @throws ClassCastException if the specified key cannot be compared
* with the keys currently in the map
* @throws NullPointerException if the specified key is null
* and this map uses natural ordering, or its comparator
* does not permit null keys
*/
public boolean containsKey(Object key) {
return getEntry(key) != null; // Key不能为null
}
/**
* Returns this map's entry for the given key, or {@code null} if the map
* does not contain an entry for the key.
*
* @return this map's entry for the given key, or {@code null} if the map
* does not contain an entry for the key
* @throws ClassCastException if the specified key cannot be compared
* with the keys currently in the map
* @throws NullPointerException if the specified key is null
* and this map uses natural ordering, or its comparator
* does not permit null keys
*/
final Entry<K,V> getEntry(Object key) {
// Offload comparator-based version for sake of performance
if (comparator != null)
return getEntryUsingComparator(key);
if (key == null)
throw new NullPointerException();
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
Comparable<? super K> k = (Comparable<? super K>) key;
Entry<K,V> p = root;
while (p != null) {
int cmp = k.compareTo(p.key);
if (cmp < 0)
p = p.left;
else if (cmp > 0)
p = p.right;
else
return p;
}
return null;
}
/**
* Version of getEntry using comparator. Split off from getEntry
* for performance. (This is not worth doing for most methods,
* that are less dependent on comparator performance, but is
* worthwhile here.)
*/
final Entry<K,V> getEntryUsingComparator(Object key) {
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
K k = (K) key;
Comparator<? super K> cpr = comparator;
if (cpr != null) {
Entry<K,V> p = root;
while (p != null) {
int cmp = cpr.compare(k, p.key);
if (cmp < 0)
p = p.left;
else if (cmp > 0)
p = p.right;
else
return p;
}
}
return null;
}

虽然明面上是获取值的方法,本质却是比出个高低等。这里将Java的java.util.Comparator(比较器排序)、java.lang.Comparable(自然排序)都用到了。顺便补了两者知识点(见文末①)。当然这里好奇的是源码中将使用comparator比较独立提成方法,说是能提高性能。why?反向思考下,假使将getEntryUsingComparator()方法内代码放回getEntry()似乎也就多了一对“{}”。费解- -

顺带一提,如果你还记得之前文章中的HashMap也用到了红黑树,而它先比较的hash再比key值,这比较的是key值。

put() –> compare() –> fixAfterInsertion()

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
/**
* Associates the specified value with the specified key in this map.
* If the map previously contained a mapping for the key, the old
* value is replaced.
*
* @param key key with which the specified value is to be associated
* @param value value to be associated with the specified key
*
* @return the previous value associated with {@code key}, or
* {@code null} if there was no mapping for {@code key}.
* (A {@code null} return can also indicate that the map
* previously associated {@code null} with {@code key}.)
* @throws ClassCastException if the specified key cannot be compared
* with the keys currently in the map
* @throws NullPointerException if the specified key is null
* and this map uses natural ordering, or its comparator
* does not permit null keys
*/
public V put(K key, V value) {
Entry<K,V> t = root;
if (t == null) {
compare(key, key); // type (and possibly null) check
root = new Entry<>(key, value, null);
size = 1;
modCount++;
return null;
}
int cmp;
Entry<K,V> parent;
// split comparator and comparable paths
Comparator<? super K> cpr = comparator;
if (cpr != null) {
do {
parent = t;
cmp = cpr.compare(key, t.key);
if (cmp < 0)
t = t.left;
else if (cmp > 0)
t = t.right;
else
return t.setValue(value);
} while (t != null);
}
else {
if (key == null)
throw new NullPointerException();
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
Comparable<? super K> k = (Comparable<? super K>) key;
do {
parent = t;
cmp = k.compareTo(t.key);
if (cmp < 0)
t = t.left;
else if (cmp > 0)
t = t.right;
else
return t.setValue(value);
} while (t != null);
}
Entry<K,V> e = new Entry<>(key, value, parent);
if (cmp < 0)
parent.left = e;
else
parent.right = e;
fixAfterInsertion(e);
size++;
modCount++;
return null;
}
/**
* Compares two keys using the correct comparison method for this TreeMap.
*/
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
final int compare(Object k1, Object k2) {
return comparator==null ? ((Comparable<? super K>)k1).compareTo((K)k2)
: comparator.compare((K)k1, (K)k2);
}
/** From CLR */
private void fixAfterInsertion(Entry<K,V> x) {
x.color = RED;
while (x != null && x != root && x.parent.color == RED) {
if (parentOf(x) == leftOf(parentOf(parentOf(x)))) {
Entry<K,V> y = rightOf(parentOf(parentOf(x)));
if (colorOf(y) == RED) {
setColor(parentOf(x), BLACK);
setColor(y, BLACK);
setColor(parentOf(parentOf(x)), RED);
x = parentOf(parentOf(x));
} else {
if (x == rightOf(parentOf(x))) {
x = parentOf(x);
rotateLeft(x);
}
setColor(parentOf(x), BLACK);
setColor(parentOf(parentOf(x)), RED);
rotateRight(parentOf(parentOf(x)));
}
} else {
Entry<K,V> y = leftOf(parentOf(parentOf(x)));
if (colorOf(y) == RED) {
setColor(parentOf(x), BLACK);
setColor(y, BLACK);
setColor(parentOf(parentOf(x)), RED);
x = parentOf(parentOf(x));
} else {
if (x == leftOf(parentOf(x))) {
x = parentOf(x);
rotateRight(x);
}
setColor(parentOf(x), BLACK);
setColor(parentOf(parentOf(x)), RED);
rotateLeft(parentOf(parentOf(x)));
}
}
}
root.color = BLACK;
}

“compare(key, key);”是一个有意思写法。从注释直译就是类型(为null可能性)检查。为空检查很好理解,因为null.xx()肯定跑异常,至于类型检查笔者理解是要求键值实现Comparable接口。

“from CLR”是指Cormen, Leiserson, Rivest,他们是算法导论的作者,也就是说TreeMap里面算法都是参照算法导论的伪代码。

由于TreeMap的有序性,使其增删查都是先进行比较,找到合适的位置。fixAfterInsertion()在这的作用类似HashMap中的balanceInsertion(),修复红黑树性质。

deleteEntry() –> successor() –> fixAfterDeletion()

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
/**
* Delete node p, and then rebalance the tree.
*/
private void deleteEntry(Entry<K,V> p) {
modCount++;
size--;
// If strictly internal, copy successor's element to p and then make p
// point to successor.
if (p.left != null && p.right != null) {
Entry<K,V> s = successor(p);
p.key = s.key;
p.value = s.value;
p = s;
} // p has 2 children
// Start fixup at replacement node, if it exists.
Entry<K,V> replacement = (p.left != null ? p.left : p.right);
if (replacement != null) {
// Link replacement to parent
replacement.parent = p.parent;
if (p.parent == null)
root = replacement;
else if (p == p.parent.left)
p.parent.left = replacement;
else
p.parent.right = replacement;
// Null out links so they are OK to use by fixAfterDeletion.
p.left = p.right = p.parent = null;
// Fix replacement
if (p.color == BLACK)
fixAfterDeletion(replacement);
} else if (p.parent == null) { // return if we are the only node.
root = null;
} else { // No children. Use self as phantom replacement and unlink.
if (p.color == BLACK)
fixAfterDeletion(p);
if (p.parent != null) {
if (p == p.parent.left)
p.parent.left = null;
else if (p == p.parent.right)
p.parent.right = null;
p.parent = null;
}
}
}
/**
* Returns the successor of the specified Entry, or null if no such.
*/
static <K,V> TreeMap.Entry<K,V> successor(Entry<K,V> t) {
if (t == null)
return null;
else if (t.right != null) { // ① ②
Entry<K,V> p = t.right;
while (p.left != null)
p = p.left;
return p;
} else { //③ ④ ⑤
Entry<K,V> p = t.parent;
Entry<K,V> ch = t;
while (p != null && ch == p.right) {
ch = p;
p = p.parent;
}
return p;
}
}

successor()可以简单的理解为“一个升序数组a[index],successor即为a[index+1]”。相对的还有prodecessor()。源码中可能出现的情况抽象如下图(while只举一次循环为例)。
successor

deleteEntry调用successor时,由于right != null,所以不会出现③ ④ ⑤的情况。基本思路就是找到“a[index+1]”(p)替换待删节点,然后使“a[index+1]”的子节点(replacement)指向其父节点(Link replacement to parent),最后清p、fixAfterDeletion修复红黑树性。

如果觉得这个看懂了,可以挑战下HashMap.TreeNode.removeTreeNode()。

说点什么:

TreeMap 有序;非线程安全;key值不支持null…;

实现了NavigableMap接口(见文末②),NavigableMap具有了针对给定搜索目标返回最接近匹配项的导航方法。

如: lowerEntry、floorEntry、ceilingEntry 和 higherEntry 分别返回与小于、小于等于、大于等于、大于给定键的 Map.Entry对象,如果不存在这样的键,则返回 null。

实现了SortedMap接口:它用来保持键的有序顺序,也提供了范围检索的一些方法;

如: headMap、subMap、tailMap分别返回小于结束键、大于或等于开始和小于结束键、大于或等于开始键的Map.Entry对象。

添加到SortedMap实现类的元素必须实现Comparable接口,否则您必须给它的构造函数提供一个Comparator接口的实现。TreeMap类是它的唯一一份实现。

知识点:

Java中自然排序和比较器排序详解:Comparable与Comparator;

计算机程序的思维逻辑 (43) - 剖析TreeMap:方法应用举例;

打赏
手机扫一扫,支持CHE~